Led Lighting Company In India – Energy Saving Necessity

Spreading of industrialization world over and population explosion, our natural resources have been ever shrinking. In India, the last two decades the rise of spending power of the middle class has increased their energy consumption drastically. Each and every family have around 2 to 4 bedroom flats, with one or more television, fridge, Air conditioners, and lighting to illuminate their homes . Over dependence on non-renewable sources of energy like coal powered energy stations screams for the expansion of energy saving systems by bringing in LED lighting company in India. The LED lights are designed in such a manner, that they can last longer and consume a lot less energy than their previous counterparts. A LED lighting company proudly states that their products with help the new urban India reduce its ever growing energy consumption drastically, with new and improved array of products. They boast, with their enhanced technology they have created a new range of products which with not only last longer and stay brighter but will also be cost effective as well.
Urban India is moving a step ahead with the rest of the developed world in the area of good quality LED Lighting, with the presence of LED lighting company in India. LED lighting Delhi, have a wide variety of products which aims to brighten up the streets of the urban jungle. They are revved up to meet the ever growing demands of LED lighting services by these products which not only have longer life, but also encompass smaller size, better design, light output with no ultra violet and infra red radiation that is harmful to our eyes. They are a lot safer to use because of lower voltage and lower heat operation.
A new LED lighting company in India said that LED lighting is the future, and the next wave of revolutionary lighting systems. LED products are more brilliant and emit higher color saturation when compared to conventional light sources. You get different color effect from the same light source, which is good for home use for decorative purposes in festivals like Deepavali. These products from LED lighting company are also said to have unbreakable plastic bulbs, weather proof, and shock proof to a certain degree. Also has silent operation and fast switching capabilities. Development of solar powered LED lighting India has even a brighter future.

LED lighting services have proven to be a the best lighting solution for places which need to be lit for a long duration of time such as streets, parking areas, reception areas, living rooms, hallways, restaurants, offices, kitchens ,lobbies etc. They do have more of a initial cost, but due to their efficiency, longevity, more durable compared to conventional breakable fluorescent bulbs, and also reduces trips to the doctor because of low UV imitations they turn out to be more cost effective solution. LED lighting services have also been developed to make benefit of the best renewable source of energy Sun. LED lighting services are the most efficient lighting service available in market today, reducing the damage done to your pocket and suits your varied needs.
Reference website: www.ikioledlighting.com

Solar Contractors Solare Energy Helping Californians Increase Energy Efficiency

In spite of all available information on the subject, achieving energy efficiency through solar powered systems can still be difficult to achieve without experts who can offer practical advice based on cutting-edge knowledge and years of experience in the field. That’s why many people are now turning to solar power equipment installation contractors such as the experts at Solare Energy, when they require high efficiency solutions that are designed for seamless integration within their home or business.

Headquartered in San Diego County, Solare Energy provides residential, commercial and governmental customers with smart energy solutions that integrate both solar and energy efficiency systems. These solutions help to ensure that clients receive cost-effective, environmentally-friendly and highly efficient energy production systems that provide them with the ideal energy production capacity for their long-term future.

Many of the company’s most prominent customers are governmental contractors. Federal agencies including military facilities and others must meet strict energy management requirements that are outlined within federal statutory laws and regulations. This is outlined by recent policy documents such as the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and the National Energy Conservation Policy Act which has set in place a concrete set of energy goals that federal facilities are mandated to follow. The goals included with this legislation include: a 30% reduction in energy intensity by 2015, 7.5% of the electricity consumed by the Federal government must come from renewable energy by 2013, and the introduction of a policy whereby federal agencies can only lease space in buildings that have earned the Energy Star label.

Solare Energy now works to help federal agencies to meet these government set mandates by helping specific agencies identify problematic areas and helping them to carry out energy efficient project opportunities. In addition, solar contractors Solare Energy also work with federal agencies to analyze the various financing options that are available to them as a government workforce, including utility service contracts, power purchase agreements and government specific energy incentive programs.

As specialist solar contractors, Solare Energy is also now working with state agencies to ensure that they comply with the recently introduced Green Building Action Plan, which mandates that state buildings in California must be 20% more energy efficient by 2015. The precursor to the Green Building Action Plan, the Green Building Initiative also mandates that state agencies review the benefits of using clean and renewable on-site energy generation technologies in all new buildings or large renovation projects. Solare Energy has been involved, working directly with the California state legislators on a number of key projects, to identify and carry out solar and energy efficiency opportunities within the state. In addition, because of the company’s role as a promoter as well as a pioneer of solar technology, Solare Energy also helps to finance solar projects through the use of third-party solar PPAs [Power Purchase Agreements].

Working to make America a more cost-efficiency energy producing nation, one building at a time, Solare Energy are one of the country’s leaders when it comes to innovative solar energy efficiency technology. Contact the organization today to find out how these industry specialists can help to cut down your energy bills.

A Biofriendly Approach to Energy Efficiency

Few of us will deny that being dependent on foreign oil supplies is undesirable. But it is not widely known that available oil supplies worldwide are dwindling, which drives the need for alternative ways of meeting our energy needs. While there is still a lot of oil in the ground, much of this is becoming harder and more costly to extract.

The term “peak oil” describes the concept that oil is a limited resource and at some point the available oil supplies will become less and less. According to some sources global oil consumption already outstrips viable new oil sources.

While we are not likely to completely run out of oil, newly discovered supplies will become less accessible and/or of lower quality, making it progressively more costly to extract. In addition, oil consumption is also on the increase as developing nations like China and India become more industrialized. Oil prices are therefore likely to keep rising.

The bottom line is that it is in everyones interest to become less fossil fuel dependent. A first step in that direction is to become more energy efficient. Saving energy means a lessened dependency on fossil fuels, fewer pollutants, as well as saving money.

Greater energy efficiency can be achieved in many ways. For example, homes can be made more energy efficient with weatherizing and improved insulation, saving on heating and cooling costs. In the transportation arena, biofuels and fuel efficient hybrid cars are becoming more popular. Meanwhile, the Green Plus liquid fuel catalyst from Biofriendly Corporation makes internal combustion engines more efficient by causing the fuel to burn more completely and thus reducing fuel consumption and harmful emissions.

References:

(1)http://www.energybulletin.net/primer.php

(2)http://www.ecomall.com/greenshopping/20things.htm

Colorado Rebates For Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency

Many quite inspiring individuals locate materials for homemade solar panels on websites. An on-site assessment is likely to be performed so that you can allow final acceptance. The credit could be taken forward for a12-month period, and at the conclusion of the period any remaining balance is used in the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Low-Income Account. At the end of the annual billing cycle the balance of the excess energy goes to the utility company. Solar process heating can be used to for hot water or room heating for large or commercial properties. You will many useful links to alternative energy or green energy products and information. And the hold may permanently create enough waves to create electricity which may be efficiently used.

Once you have selected an installer you should work with the installer to complete and submit your software to get a rebate. Locating a solution to our environmental and vitality issues is actually a really important situation and the government is investing more and more finances to finding a solution. The Colorado Governor’s Energy Office provides corresponding grant programs for solar photovoltaic systems, insulation, small wind systems, and solar water heating systems. No matter whether you were in a packed location or in a rural village, within an arid desert or in a lush green forest, at beach or up in the mountains…solar technology can be obtained to all and one. The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy. An average renewable energy company gets the experience to obtain energy from sun’s rays, ocean waves, wind, and other designs of energy that are current on Earth.

The True Benefit Of Your Solar Renewable Energy Program The real appeal behind solar renewable energy is the proven fact that you’ll will have energy whenever sunlight is out. Another key source of renewable energy may be the growth of geothermal energy through the utilization of underground steam production from hot springs. The solar energy supply is among the greatest solutions. energy kitchen (My Home Page). Below are some examples of some of the solar-energy classes that are accessible and what you can aspire to obtain from each of these. Water mills were utilizing this concept within the industrial revolution, so it’s not much of a fresh concept. But when using alternative energy is non-biodegradable material world. Currently I notice you snapping to attention, with eyes-wide open. Perhaps you are astonished how simple it is to build solar panels in the comfort of your house nowadays.

This really is proof of how aggressive the plan is to stop using fossil fuel and choose the green rather. The Coming Age of Solar Energy. The device is generally installed on the top. It does affect environment to a selected stage, although pollution doesn’t be produced by renewable energy..|Oil and Natural Gas Business has recently recognized a 150 megawatt wind power plant and the company is planning to set up another 100 megawatt wind energy facility.|The clients are bound to acquire a full value of money below.|Are there any disadvantages concerning this item?|Further, the subsidies in clean-energy sector that were because of expire on 31st December 2010, was further extended for-one year under the Treasury Grant System.|These are some of the many outstanding advances in renewable energy.|The specialist is responsible for achieving most of the technological demands, obtaining the required permits, and helping you with the procedure for applying for a discount through the Commonwealth Solar software.|Concentrating solar power Main article: Concentrating solar power Solar troughs are the most widely deployed.|One of the most exact meaning of Solar-Energy is obviously the energy in the sunshine.|Payments are guaranteed for 10 years.|The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s.|These systems can be mounted professionally or by the house owner.|The web surplus generation of energy is paid to your next bill for 12 weeks.|Its quality is outstanding and the worthiness is high-class.|Especially, the cost is located by ions as in a battery.|Suntech Power Holdings is a organization that is increasing phenomenally, thanks to its lowcost generation supply and increasing requirements of solar parts in the Asian areas.|The rebate program is offered through partners outside the service area of the two investor-owned utility companies in Colorado – Xcel Energy and Aquila, who offer their own solar rebate programs.}

The energy that’s absorbed through these homemade solar panels is kept in a series of batteries that may be utilized similar to any other battery to use for electricity.

Net metering (net energy) provides customers and companies an incentive, employ environmentally safe renewable energy power resources to produce electricity and get kilowatt credit for surplus power (sometimes money incentive), effectively decreasing energy price, specially today when application expenses are rising higher as results of higher crude oil prices. Though we are incapable of exploit the power of the sun through the night or on rainy and gloomy nights, but we may usually count on the sun being present there these time, ready to provide us added energy and light. Sunshine holds there a really amazing amount of potential energy and means of garnering such energy have become extremely valuable methods we could secure the energy needs individuals culture while still defending the planet. Massachusetts Financial Incentives For Renewable Energy.

How Much Money Can Energy-efficient Windows Really Save You

Some homeowners are reluctantly putting off the decision to replace their windows because they’re not sure if they will recoup their initial investment. Still others are putting the decision off until they see what’s going to happen with the economy.

Is replacing your windows with energy-efficient windows really worth the investment? How much money replacement windows will save a homeowner depends, of course, on numerous factors. At the top of the list is the type of window you choose and there are plenty to choose from. There are single-panes, double-panes, and triple-panes. There are coated and uncoated windows. There are windows with hard coating and windows with soft coating. There are windows will gas filling and there are windows without gas filling. Some windows are filled with Argon, some are filled with Krypton. Decisions. Decisions. Where does a savvy homeowner begin?

You don’t need to be Einstein to deduce that dual-paned windows will save a homeowner more money on their energy bills than single-paned windows. But does the same hold true with triple-paned windows? Will triple-paned windows save you more money than dual-paned windows? Here’s what Energy Star, a government agency which promotes energy efficiency, says: “All energy efficient windows have at least two panes, but not all double-paned windows are energy efficient. Twenty years ago, double-paned meant energy efficient; today, advanced technologies have enabled the development of windows that are much more efficient than traditional clear-glass double-paned windows.”

Just as a dual-paned window is much more energy-efficient than a single-paned window, so also a triple-paned window is much more energy-efficient than a dual-paned window. But what are some of these “advanced technologies” that Energy Star is referring to?

There are four things to look for when choosing an energy-efficient window:

1. The layers of reflective glass coating.
2. The type of reflective glass coating.
3. The type of gas used between the window panes.
4. The U-Value of the window.

Once you find a triple-paned window that is manufactured by a reputable company, you have narrowed the playing field considerably. Now you need to consider whether the window panes are coated, how many layers of coating the manufacturer uses, and the type of coating they use. Some windows are coated with a reflective coating, while others are not. By selecting a window with coated glass, the coating will reflect unwanted cold in the winter and unwanted heat in the summer, thereby reducing your fuel costs and saving you money.

But not all reflective coating is created equal. Also bear in mind that most window manufacturers only coat one pane of glass. Few window manufacturers are willing to go the extra mile by coating two panes of glass. Naturally, this will increase the initial cost of the window. Nevertheless, this extra coating will usually pay for itself in savings many times over. Once you have found a triple-paned window that coats two panes of glass instead of just one, you will have eliminated most of the windows on the market. But your search for optimal energy efficiency is not quite complete yet. Patience, dear reader; we’re almost at the finish line.

The next thing to consider is whether or not the window manufacturer uses hard coating or soft coating. Soft coating is much better because it is more reflective. So why doesn’t every manufacturer use soft coating on their windows? Again, soft coating costs a little more. But investing a little more for soft coating will usually pay for itself many times over.

Insulation can be further improved by placing inert gas between the panes of glass. Some manufacturers use Krypton, most use Argon. Again, Krypton costs a bit more than Argon, but the extra savings that come from Krypton gas is well worth it.

The exact energy efficiency of a window can be scientifically measured by a trained window expert. It’s a smart idea to have a trained professional measure the energy efficiency of your current windows. Some say, “I don’t need to replace my windows. My home is just a few years old.” That may be true. However, some homebuilders try to cut costs by installing cheap windows that are not as energy-efficient as they could and should be. It’s better to be safe than sorry. Have an expert measure your windows for energy efficiency. Usually, there is no cost or obligation for this free service.

Once you’ve checked around and are ready to get a free estimate on your windows, be sure to ask the representative for the exact U-Value of the window you are considering. The official standard of measurement for energy efficiency is called a U-Value, also known as a U-Factor. The lower the U-Value, the more energy-efficient the window is. Here is a sampling of a few popular windows and their U-Values:

Alside (Vinyl): 6000 Double Hung 0.30

Alside (Vinyl): R601 Double Hung 0.33

Andersen (Wood): Woodwright (Low-E & Argon) 0.33

Preservation: 9001/P601 0.30

Anderson (Wood): A series Double hung 0.31

Marvin (Ultrex): Integrity (Low-E & Argon) 0.29

Marvin (Ultrex): Infinity (Low-E & Argon) 0.29

Pella (Wood): Proline (Low-E & Argon) 0.32

If you are considering replacing your windows with any of these popular brands, be sure to ask the representative these four following questions:

1. Do you use multiple layers of soft coating on two panes?
2. Do you fill those panes with a gas?
3. (If yes) Do you use Argon or Krypton gas filling?
4. What is the U-Value of your window?

The answer to the first three questions ultimately determines the U-Value of the window. Therefore, question number four is the most important. The U-Value will tell you how energy efficient a window is and give you an idea of how much money you’ll be able to save on your energy bills. The lower the U-Value, the greater a window’s resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value. One window, though not as well-known as Andersen, Pella, or Marvin, has been able to achieve an incredibly low U-Value precisely because they follow the criteria mentioned in this article. Consider, for example, the U-Value of the Bristol Window, manufactured by Winchester Industries in Saltsburg, Pennsylvania:

Bristol (Reinforced Vinyl, overall window U-Value with Krypton): .18

Bristol (with Alpha-10): .21

According to the company’s literature, this particular window has been known to cut homeowner’s energy bills in half, though the exact savings will naturally vary depending on a wide variety of factors. A window expert can test your windows to find out whether or not they need to be replaced and calculate approximately how much money you will save if your windows do need replacing. By comparing the amount of money a window costs with the amount of money you will save, simple math will determine whether or not it is cost-efficient to replace your windows.

Another thing to consider is a window’s warranty. While most windows are only made to last for approximately 10 years, Bristol windows come with a transferrable 50 year warranty. That’s a huge difference. Instead of replacing your windows 5 times over the next 50 years, you can save additional money by only replacing your windows once.

Look at it this way: The government is giving you a huge head start. One thousand five hundred dollars is nothing to sneeze at. Now consider all the money you will probably save in the meantime. Often, the savings alone will pay for the windows within a few short years. It’s smart to have an energy expert help you do the math. If you still live in a home with energy wasting windows, you will pay for windows whether you replace them or not. The question is, would you rather pay extra money to your utility company for energy-deficient windows? Or would you rather invest in your home’s future value while dramatically reducing your energy bills by replacing your windows with energy-efficient windows? The choice is yours.

Capital Review Group Publishes White Papers On Tax Savings And Energy Efficiency Incentives

Phoenix, AZ Phoenix-based consulting firm, Capital Review Group (CRG), has released a series of white papers designed to help educate business owners and accounting professionals on some of CRGs most sought after service offerings. White paper titles include:

Benefits of the Cost Segregation Study for Commercial Property Owners
Are you Ready to Take Advantage of the New Green Tax Incentives for Commercial Property Owners?
When is an Energy Audit Indicated?
Passive Activity and Cost Segregation

CRG Founder, Marky Moore, says that the White Papers offer valuable insights into the specialized work that CRG does for their clients. This is an area of growing interest for commercial property and business owners, says Moore. We want to give interested individuals more information on tax savings and incentives they could be applying, as well as how CRG develops strategies – with them- to maximize savings and apply discovered capital to high-value energy projects.

Combining expertise in areas of engineering, architecture, and IRS methodology, CRG is an innovator in identifying tax effects that create dramatic financial advantages for clients, as well as maximizing the positive impact of energy efficiency projects. Moore says, Many business owners, non-profit organizations and even builders and designers have limited knowledge of how to wade through complicated tax codes and develop strategies that combine energy efficiency, tax savings and future financial planning.
Moore hopes that by downloading the new white papers, interested parties will start to gain an understanding of the scope of the potential savings available to them, as well as ways they may experience an enhanced return on investment in energy efficiency projects. We are really hoping to generate some excitement by making this information available, Moore says. We want to build awareness of the kinds of dramatic financial advantages that are possible using our services, as well as the positive impact energy strategies can have on businesses and facilities.
Capital Review Group is a specialized consulting firm combining facility engineering with tax accounting to discover and develop high-value projects related to energy efficiency and Capital Discovery solutions for government, commercial and not-for-profit facilities. The companys team of professionals has a thorough understanding of
green tax incentives, energy tax credit deductions, IRS compliance regulations and energy strategies, including renewables. CRG offers 179d analysis and financial recommendations for energy-related federal tax incentives, as well as providing the required third-party certification to claim those deductions.

Most of CRG’s services begin with a preliminary review and analysis at no cost to clients. For more information, visit www.capitalreviewgroup.com.

Choices For Energy Efficiency Savings Through The Management Of Energy How Can You Save Energy

Learning how you can save energy these days is important for a number of different reasons. There are a many different plans that you might use to reduce your usage of energy and make your home or business more efficient. Deciding on an energy audit or other methods to find the higher use areas can be very helpful.

If you are looking at your energy bills and wondering how can you save energy, you can just begin the process by learning which areas of the building are using the most energy. This is known as an energy audit. Because there are many different ways that energy is used, it is important to understand what might be changed to reduce the use and what cannot be changed.

Working through the process will likely point out spots where too much energy is being used in various ways. When you find these areas, you can quickly correct the problem and reduce the use of energy in that way. Determining the best choices to correct problems will depend on the type of business you are in as well as the why there is excess energy being used.

The reduction of energy use is important to save money of course, but there are other reasons why you want to learn about ways you can accomplish this task. Today it is very important that everyone do their part in the reduction of energy use. By reducing the amount of energy that is used, steps are taken to help reduce the natural resources that are being used to create that energy.

Using specific methods for the management of energy is one way that anyone can learn about reducing the cost for this type of resource. By managing the use you can reduce the expense as well as be more efficient in a number of different ways. Finding ways to reduce the use will be important and can easily be accomplished by doing an audit of your use.

Learning how you can save energy is an important step to help reduce the use of natural resources to create the energy in the first place. At the same time it will help you to reduce your energy bill which is something everyone is working on doing today. Whether you need to rearrange equipment to create a more efficient use of the energy or you need to learn about other options, you can find a number of ways to help you save money on this necessary utility today.

The Use Of Appliances With Energy Efficiency Check Business Electricity Prices

Electricity is no doubt consumed at incredible rate in manufacturing industries, commercial sectors and business hubs. Over consumption of electricity adds to their overall operation costs. Energy efficiency should be among their must-to-dos to reduce production cost and raise the level of profitability. Being ignorant of the benefits of energy efficiency, commercial sectors keep no curb on the use of electricity. There are several ways to keep electricity consumption in check and reduce business electricity prices.

Some facts are there to consider while shopping for electronics goods. Make sure to look for electronics devices that are labeled by an energy saving body. Such products are preferable for their limited absorption of electricity. Check the logo of the energy saving body on the products as the logo is a proof of authenticity of the products.

Integrated electronic appliances are energy-saving products. They are available in a wide variety. Integrated gadgets are highly recommended to use in day-to-day life as they consume less energy than other electronics goods. Hence, they cost less for energy consumption. Their use in business hubs is sure to keep business electricity prices at bay. With an in-built CD player or DVD player, a TV ensures energy efficiency more than a TV with a separate CD or DVD player.

Household and business electronics goods come with energy-saving features. Several appliances are available with an option of automatic standby. Such appliances when not in use, automatically shift to standby mode. An appliance consumes less energy in standby mode than on full power. It is the wise of you to purchase such appliances for use.

The degree of energy consumption by TVs varies with their types. So choose the type of television that ensures energy efficiency. A flat screen television needs three times more energy than a regular model. Choose a flat screen TV set of LCD type as it retains greater energy efficiency than plasma TVs. Do not forget to check the level of energy consumption and the rate of energy efficiency with every electronics product before making a purchase. It is sure to restrain the rise of business electricity prices . Appliances are available with a guide on how to use them.

Lessons Learned From A Failed Energy Efficiency Project

INTRODUCTION
You would think that energy efficiency is relatively simple: perform an energy audit, install the retrofits and then reap the energy savings. Unfortunately, it doesn”t always work that way. We performed an energy assessment of several stores of a major retail chain in the San Francisco Bay Area and identified a handful of low-cost retro-commissioning measures that had very promising potential. We quantified the expected savings and costs and returned after the project was installed. We then measured the savings using various methods and found either minimal or negative savings. The problem we discovered was that on nearly every measure, the contractors had repaired the hardware, but through various means had ensured that energy savings would not occur. This paper provides an account of the failed project at one store and the steps we took to remedy it. Specifically, this paper stresses the importance of Measurement and Verification and Commissioning of the retrofits.

DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING
The store, located in San Francisco, belongs to a well-known national retailer, whose name we will not divulge. The store is an aggregate of 3 buildings which have been joined together to comprise almost 1,000,000 square feet, of which over half is selling floor. Stock rooms and offices comprise the remainder of the space. The different buildings range between 8 and 11 stories tall.

The three buildings comprising the store were built at different times from the 1920s to the 1980s. Originally the buildings had different air handling, chilled water and hot water systems. Over the years, through energy conservation and facility improvement measures, the chilled water systems have been merged into one system.

There were no operating boilers in the store. Steam is provided to the store by an external vendor. Hot water is supplied to multi-zone air handling units and perimeter reheats in some areas of the store via heat exchangers.
There is one common cooling plant which houses two 500 ton centrifugal chillers (2004) which run all year. Chilled water is supplied to the Air Handling Units (AHUs) via primary/secondary chilled water loops. During the hottest months, both chillers run at around 90% full load””this happens about 5 days/yr. During the cooler months, one chiller runs at about 40% full load. If you have been to San Francisco you probably know that even in summer a typical day only reaches about 60 degrees . A properly designed and operating building in San Francisco should not need mechanical cooling most of the year, instead relying upon outside air to meet its cooling needs. This was obviously not the case .

A utility bill analysis identified an out of control building. Figure 1 presents twelve months of average usage per day versus average outdoor temperature. Each point represents a billing period. The superimposed red line represents the statistically insignificant trend. The lack of clear trend indicates that the building is either haphazardly controlled or that energy use varies due to some other variable. We believe mostly the former. During warmer periods (which are not that warm) the store uses more energy, indicating a variable cooling load based upon weather conditions. (An ideal system that uses outside air whenever possible should show a horizontal trend in this 48 to 66 degree temperature range.)

There are over fifty AHUs: a mixture of single zone, multi-zone, and variable air volume units. Each of the three sections contains different types of AHUs.
Electricity Costs for the store were over $2.5M per year. With the economic collapse in the fall of 2008, smart retailers were looking to cut costs wherever possible. One line item that could be cut was utilities. Saving 10% or more could add at least $250,000 to the bottom line.

BACKGROUND OF THE UTILITY PROGRAM
There may be several reasons why California uses less than 50% per capita of the energy than the rest of the country, but one major reason is the aggressive effort of the California Public Utilities Commission to cut energy usage. Commercial ratepayers of the investor owned utilities pay a fee in their utility bills that funds energy efficiency programs. These funds are then channeled to the investor owned utilities to promote energy efficiency. These utilities have over one hundred targeted programs aimed at different vertical markets such as: wineries, retail, hospitals, supermarkets, etc. Often these programs will include free energy audits or retro-commissioning services in conjunction with generous incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In some cases, the utilities will pay for up to 100% of the cost for implementing the measures. The utilities administer some programs directly and outsource others. The outsourced programs are designed and administered by third party energy consultants.

Quantum Energy Services & Technologies, Inc. (QuEST), an energy consulting firm headquartered in Berkeley, administers a retail program for PG&E which covers the San Francisco Bay Area. This program offers retailers free retro-commissioning studies along with incentives to implement energy conservation measures found. The utilities give incentives to the building owners based upon the amount of energy saved. But in order for energy savings to be recognized by PG&E, these savings need to be measured and verified and then the savings calculations must pass a review by third party reviewers. Nobody gets paid if the work does not pass the third party review. The third party review process is necessary to prevent false claims of savings, or gaming of the system. The reviewers can be tough and require all assumptions to be documented and based upon published standards or guidelines. The drawback of third party review is that some measures are dropped as the Measurement and Verification (M&V) costs would be prohibitively expensive.

QuEST retained our company as a subcontractor to help out with the retail program. Our company performed Retro-Commissioning (RCx) services on 8 stores belonging to this unnamed retailer, and this paper is about one of the stores. However, the same story occurred at most of the stores. It wasn”t one failure, but many.

A NOTE ON THE LEVEL OF RCx RIGOR
RCx is different from energy auditing in that RCx typically involves a more detailed study of the building”s control systems and HVAC systems than energy audits. In addition, RCx typically focuses on repairing, recalibrating and reprogramming, rather than procuring new equipment. Simple paybacks for RCx projects typically are under 2 years. Examples of RCx measures are: repairing inoperable equipment, programming controls, demand control ventilation, and calibrating temperature sensors. Examples of energy audit measures (which are not considered RCx measures) are: installing energy efficient chillers, boilers or package units, converting single zone HVAC systems to variable air volume systems, and installing EMS systems. Energy audit measures often are more expensive and may have longer paybacks. On the other hand, true RCx studies are much more detailed, and thus much more expensive to conduct than energy audits. RCx studies usually involve data logging, functional testing of controls, operator training and post implementation commissioning which repeats much of the data logging and functional testing that was previously done. RCx is criticized by some as too heavy on the analysis, as it can require hundreds of hours of work just to perform the study, whereas energy audits consume much less labor.

In order to make the most efficient use of ratepayer dollars, in QuEST”s RCx program the amount of engineering time was scaled down to minimize the time spent on work that does not directly lead to energy savings. Rather than write commissioning plans, and 100-page Master List of Findings reports, the interim deliverable is instead an Excel workbook that describes the measure, states all assumptions and measured values, and calculates the savings. Equipment is data-logged or trended before and after the implementation of the measures. Calculations are made in Excel so they can be verified by third party reviewers. Written reports come later, but are less extensive than typical RCx reports.

ONSITE INVESTIGATION
Two engineers spent 3 days onsite examining the store”s mechanical systems, uncovering problems, and identifying RCx Measures. Our work to this point was nearly identical to an energy audit.
Once the RCx Measures were identified, the list of RCx Measures was given to the customer who then decided which of them should be pursued. The list also was approved by the third party reviewer.

MEASURES FOUND
We found the store could save about $300,000 in both RCx and Retrofit Measures, which, with incentives offered a simple payback of less than six months. That is 12% of their energy spend. The following measure types were identified and approved by all parties:

Retrofit Measures
1.Install Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) on Multi-Zone Air Handling Units (AHUs).
2.Installation of VSDs on secondary chilled water loops.
RCx Measures
1.Repair economizer control on some air handlers. Many outside air dampers were rusted in place. A two by six was used to prop one open.
2.Repair a small number of faulty VSDs, some of which were in bypass running at 100% fan speed.
3.Reconnect static pressure lines. Some VSDs were running at full speed because the lines running to the static pressure sensors in the ducting had been previously destroyed by contractors.
4.Repair/Replace stuck chilled water valves. These valves were cooling whether the AHUs called for cooling or not. As a result, sales floor temperatures ranged from 62 degrees to 70 degrees.
5.Connect some AHUs to the Energy Management System. These AHUs were running wild and had no control at all.

DATA LOGGING
Once the measures were selected by the customer, QuEST engineers placed data loggers to measure pre-implementation temperatures and power. Temperatures measured included Outside Air Temperature (OAT), Return Air Temperature (RAT), Mixed Air Temperature (MAT) and Supply Air Temperature (SAT). Fan Motor kW were also logged for those units on VSDs. Spot measurements were taken of Fan Motor kW for AHUs that were not on VSDs.

SAVINGS CALCULATION
Energy savings were estimated using bin data simulations. Like-type AHUs were combined. Special care was taken in calculating energy savings to ensure that savings were not double-counted. Each energy conservation measure was modeled assuming the prior measures were already implemented. We integrated the interval data that we collected into the bin data simulations. To do this, we created regressions of our variables (RAT, MAT, SAT, kW) versus OAT. These regressions were used to project RATs, MATs, SATs and kW for other outdoor air temperatures that were not included in our sample.

INSTALLATION
Once we had estimated savings using our bin simulation models and provided measure costs, the customer decided which measures to implement. They then hired contractors to implement the measures. VSDs were installed and repaired, economizer dampers repaired, AHUs connected to the EMS system, etc.

M&V PROVES NO SAVINGS
Once the implementation was completed, QuEST engineers returned to the site and again data logged the same temperatures and power as before. The resulting data, RATs, MATs, SATs and kWs, was again regressed against OAT. Using the regression, RATs, MATs, SATs, and kW values were again extrapolated and placed into the bin simulations.

The resulting calculations demonstrated the unthinkable. Not only were the energy conservation measures we had recommended not saving energy, the affected systems at the store were using more energy than before! Actually, this could be seen from just looking at the interval data. It was obvious that the economizers and variable speed drives were not working as intended. The “repaired” economizers were letting in less outside air than before, and the variable speed drives were still commanding the fans to run at a constant load, but at a higher speed than before.

QuEST alerted the customer that their investments were not saving energy. Facility personnel then investigated the problems, found them, and corrected them.

Even though the contractors had made the economizers operational (as opposed to frozen), the damper actuators were not calibrated correctly. When dampers needed to be fully open, they were not. When dampers needed to be at minimum position, they were not. The variable speed drives were also installed incorrectly. Some wiring and controls issues were resolved and the units started operating as expected. Once these issues were resolved, M&V was performed again. We repeated the data-logging and placed this information into our bin simulations, and again projected the annual savings.
There are many ways energy efficiency projects can go wrong.

“Faulty recommendations
“Poor implementation
“Untrained staff who compromise all the energy conservation measures undertaken

Faulty recommendations may arise from a lack of understanding of how systems operate or should operate. Years of experience, and a good understanding of physics and control theory is necessary to make sound recommendations.

Poor implementation has many causes, but often can be traced to the mindset that having the right equipment will make the difference. But as the lessons learned here illustrate, installing the right hardware is only half the solution. It needs to be integrated into the system and operate according to a logical and beneficial sequence of operations.

The last item is especially troublesome because it is so common. Even if the right hardware is installed and controls optimized, small changes to the sequence of operations made to “fix” local problems may have large consequences on overall system performance over time. Changing supply air temperatures at the air handler to resolve hot or cold complaints may upset the balance of the system and cause problems elsewhere. Professors at Texas A&M University have pointed out that in the absence of continuous monitoring, a building”s performance will fall to the level of the least-trained operator within two years.

HOW TO AVOID FAILED ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS
There are a couple of ways to avoid projects that fail to produce savings. After equipment is installed, it needs to be commissioned by a third party, not the contractor who implemented the ECMs. Commissioning can be expensive, but it is worth it. However, just because the equipment has been deemed operational by the commissioning agent, that doesn”t mean it is saving what was expected. Commissioning will tell you if the equipment is working as it should. To determine if you are actually saving what was expected, M&V needs to be done on the building. Although M&V can appear as a waste of money to some, it caught this disaster before it was too late.

Unfortunately, building owners often value engineer commissioning and M&V out of their projects and leave themselves open to big disappointments in their energy efficiency projects. M&V is like insurance””sure, it costs money up front, but the reassurance of knowing the project is done correctly should be worth far more than the initial outlay. What other product would you purchase without verifying that you actually received what you paid for? Why should energy efficiency be any different?

CONCLUSION
Unfortunately, energy efficiency isn”t as simple as we would wish. Energy consultants may deliver quality energy audits and RCx studies, but merely implementing sound energy efficiency recommendations does not guarantee energy savings. The weak link is often in the commissioning of the measures to ensure they are doing what they are intended to do.
To avoid underperforming on your energy efficiency measures, we suggest the following three strategies:

1. Commission what you implement with third-party commissioning experts. Commissioning agents are not interested in selling hardware. They are interested in making systems operate at peak performance. They understand physics and control theory and can identify and repair problems quickly.

2. Track your energy savings using M&V. Even using something as simple as utility bill tracking software can provide some insight into building performance. An increase in monthly energy usage when a decrease was expected would have triggered an investigation into the cause. Verifying performance at the system level (as we did), while more difficult and expensive, would have isolated the problem much more quickly and accurately.

3. Provide proper training so that your facility staff doesn”t override or bypass your energy efficiency projects. Although we barely treated this topic in this paper, this is probably the single most effective step you can take. Your staff is the brains behind building operation, despite what EMS vendors may say. Having the smartest control system will do no good if it is operated by the dumbest operators.

Energy Efficiency And Solar Power Systems Help San Diego Homeowners Cut Energy Costs

When it comes to balancing comfort and savings, industry experts recommend combining cost-effective energy efficiency measures with smaller solar power systems. The powerful benefit of solar power systems to create electricity added to reducing energy loss not only saves money, but also costs San Diego homeowners far less in the long run.

Electricity bills have skyrocketed lately everywhere, and San Diego is no exception to the trend. The average electricity consumption rate for a single family detached home in San Diego County is about 675 kWh per month. In June of 1999, that meant an electric bill of $71 but now, thanks to rising costs, that same consumption will result in an electric bill of $150.

For many San Diego homeowners, solar power systems have provided at least some relief from astronomical electricity costs. While the systems require an upfront investment, most solar panels come with a substantial warranty and will produce electricity for up to 40 years at practically no operating cost. The savings on electric bills from a solar power system will cover the investment in 6-8 years for most homeowners, leaving them with free electricity for another 20-30 years.

For example, a homeowner with a $150 average electricity bill today can either buy a solar power system for $17,500 after state and federal incentives or pay $150,000 over the next 30 years for the same amount of electricity. Over the last five years, more than 8,000 homeowners in San Diego have installed solar power systems. New financing options, such as third-party Power Purchasing agreements, allow homeowners to install solar power systems with little or no money down.

While solar power systems yield moderate savings for San Diego homeowners, a combination of solar power and energy efficiency can lead to even better results. By focusing on basic adjustments like insulation, duct sealing and LED bulbs, consumers can drastically cut the amount of energy wasted on heating, cooling and lighting. All it takes is a custom energy audit to figure out the right efficiency improvements. San Diego homeowners can invest 10-40% less than what is needed to install an average solar power system into energy efficiency measures and smaller-scale solar installations and reap the benefits of bigger financial savings and better energy efficiency for many years to come.

Each home uses energy differently and there are no generic solutions that are cost effective for everyone. But with the help of an expert energy auditor, homeowners can identify the custom solution that combines the right energy efficiency measures and solar power system size.